Expansion of copper mining is driving economic growth in Peru, which coincides with increased Chinese demand and investment in copper mining. Chinese involvement in Peru's mining sector varies by project and is often obfuscated through intermediary company involvement in mine acquisition or construction.
China has five mining investments in Peruvian copper: three are operational and two are delayed from local community resistance. Construction and operations at several mines have led to environmental degradation and forced community relocation.
A unique GEOINT finding from this study shows that the Don Javier mine is operational when the Peruvian government labels it in the study phase.