Since 2017, Russia has become increasingly involved in the affairs of the Central African Republic (CAR). A recent agreement between the two countries granted the Russian mining company "Lobaye Invest" exclusive mineral rights to ore deposits throughout the country. Activity in these sites has resulted in observable environmental degradation in the mining permit areas.
The Donbas has historically been the industrial heartland of Ukraine, serving as a center for industry and coal mining. The war in eastern Ukraine that began in 2014 led to the destruction of many forms of critical infrastructure and prohibited the maintenance of hundreds of coal mines. Destruction of this infrastructure has not only disrupted life in the region, but also set the stage for potential ecological damage.
The Russian invasion of Ukraine presents potential environmental consequences. Since early 2022, Russian forces have attacked multiple oil refineries across the country. Watershed analysis indicates that contamination from these attacks could pollute lands, groundwater, and seep into nearby surface waters.
In 2017, a Chinese national security law mandated citizens and business entities comply with requests for information by Chinese intelligence agencies. With this law, the presence of Chinese telecommunications companies in South America poses potential security threats.