In contrast to our findings of BRI hydroelectric power projects in Bolivia, in Ecuador, we observe fewer problematic environmental impacts in the majority of Chinese projects, with several accompanied by substantial local community development initiatives.
In line with the push for environmentally friendly Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) infrastructure projects and Bolivia's former President Evo Morales' "2025 Patriotic Agenda" to transform Bolivia into a regional energy hub, China has supported six hydropower energy projects in the country. The success of these projects vary, and are more dependent on domestic factors in Bolivia than the actions of China.
The broad policy goals of the Made in China 2025 (MIC25) plan have a real-world activity impact on the urban layout of the Beijing Economic-Technological Development Area, most notably in residential and environmental activity. Further, industrial clusters and companies in the zone appear to be guided by the MIC25's ten core industries.
The policy goals of the Made in China 2025 (MIC25) plan have increased development in Shenzhen High-Tech Industrial Park's dominant industries. From 2015 to 2022, imagery analysis showed increased activity and construction, much of which promoted MIC25's core industries.
The water crisis in Afghanistan highlights the importance of Taliban management of Afghan dams. Our analysis of open source data and commercial satellite imagery reveals that, as a gesture towards improved relations, the Taliban has begun to release water into Iran with greater frequency than the former Afghan government.
In 2017, a Chinese national security law mandated citizens and business entities comply with requests for information by Chinese intelligence agencies. With this law, the presence of Chinese telecommunications companies in South America poses potential security threats.